How can I run 40 yards faster?
in the 40.
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What are "INS & OUTS"
"Ins and Outs" is a fundamental speed development drill that teaches acceleration and breathing skills necessary for optimal speed.
Drill description; mark a course 40 yds long and divide into equal 10 yd segments.
Each "In" is an acceleration push that is followed by an "out," which is relaxing (while running fast), taking some sips of air, and coasting off the previous acceleration push.
IN = With a standing start, stride to the first mark. When the athlete hits the 10 yd mark, with maximum acceleration, exert maximum force and speed while holding the breath through the first "in phase".
After the "in," slightly coast (relax while running fast) and
breathe while maintaining speed through "out" section. Once
the athlete hits the next mark (acceleration POINT), this is followed
by another "in" acceleration push.
a distance runner and I want to run the Boston Marathon, but I have not
made the qualifying time. The sprint workouts have helped my distance
speed. I was surprised that it took only a few workouts
to see a difference. I am convinced that I will have a qualifying
time for the Boston Marathon. My quads got very fatigued during my last
marathon, and I believe the added strength and running speed resulting
from the sprint workouts will take care of that problem."
When the breath is held, certain physiological changes automatically position the body for enhanced speed. This is called the "Valsalva Maneuver." It is created by holding the breath briefly during acceleration.
The body goes into the fight or flight mode and there is an increase in blood pressure in the carotid artery. Chest cavity and abdominal pressure are increased. The body's sensors are turned on improving the athletes awareness. Holding the breath briefly provides many advantages to the athlete when exploding to avoid a tackle, steal second, beat an opponent to the hoop, or get to the soccer ball first.
Strength and conditioning professionals who work with collegiate football players focus much of their time and effort on developing programs to enhance athletic performance. Although there has been much speculation, there is little scientific evidence to suggest which combination of physical characteristics best predicts athletic performance in this population. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship among 6 physical characteristics and 3 functional measures in college football players. Data were gathered on 46 NCAA Division I college football players. The 3 response variables were 36.6-m sprint, 18.3-m shuttle run, and vertical jump. The 6 regressor variables were height, weight, percentage of body fat, hamstring length, bench press, and hang clean. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to screen for variables that predict physical performance. Regression analysis revealed clear prediction models for the 36.6-m (40 yards) sprint and 18.3-m shuttle run. The results of this investigation will help strength and conditioning specialists better understand the variables that predict athletic performance in Division I college football players.
How do you treat hamstring injuries, click here.
involved. First, Body composition - The less lean, the shorter
Strength and Power - Maximum strength contributes to joint stabilization at high velocities which aids in elastic strength expression.
Elasticity (Flexibility in motion) - Recently, a researcher found in a drop jump that muscle actually shortened a small amount as the whole system lengthened. This implies that connective tissue is the elastic part of the system. This means that max strength is even more important. The muscle is almost static so ATP is not required. Thus the energy cost in elastic force production is very low.
component supports the contractile component for force production and
when utilized, contributes to much longer stride lengths. The ability
to anticipate the need for force production is important in elastic force
Neuromuscular Sequencing - The specific sequential firing order of the muscles involved is essential. The anticipation of the forthcoming action and the sending of the proper message to the brain to fire the muscles.
Dynamic Mobility - The ability to move a limb segment through a greater range of motion in the same time or a prescribed range in a shorter time.
THE LENGTH-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP
is the larger limiting factor in speed performance. Researcher Mann points
out that most better sprinters improve their performance through improved
Both Length and Frequency are improved by increasing leg strength which results in necessary ground force production more quickly.
Conclusion: Stride length can be limited by lack of flexibility and leg strength.
Ross Dunton, DUNTON SPORTS MANAGEMENT has full discussions about this topic on-line at www.coachr.org
What I observed in runners I trained was the jump from 6 to 7 miles a day, produced the biggest jump in fitness level and the largest drop in racing times. After achieving and sustaining 7 miles a day, the gains above (8 or 9, for instance) were not as pronounced. My suspicion is that somewhere between 6 and 7 miles per day, there is a threshold achieved that maximizes the benefit to oxygen uptake.
should endurance athletes improve endurance?
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of short-term, high-intensity sprint training on the performance of trained cyclists when performed with endurance training. Seventeen trained cyclists were randomly assigned to a sprint training. Sprint training was performed biweekly for four weeks, comprising a total of 28 min over the training period.
these data suggest that four weeks of high-intensity sprint training combined
with endurance training in a trained cycling population increased motor
unit activation, exercising plasma lactate levels, and total work output
with a relatively low volume of sprint exercise compared to endurance
THE BLOCK START
1) Used to put the
sprinter in a better position to accelerate
"On your marks"
(1) Toes or ball
of foot in contact with the track and firmly against the pedals of the
(1) Power side (front)
knee is approximately 90 degrees
(1) Extension of
the quick side arm to contribute to force production on the power leg
(1) Even in the first
flight phase the athlete should be airborne, not walking from the blocks
An Athlete's Dangerous Experiment
PLANO, Tex., Nov. 25 After recording one save last season, Taylor Hooton expected to join the starting rotation next spring for the baseball team at Plano West Senior High School.
"You could count on the kid to throw strikes," said Billy Ajello, Taylor's best friend and a catcher at Plano West, which is located amid the affluent sprawl north of Dallas.
By all accounts, Taylor was popular and ebullient. He was a cousin of Burt Hooton, the former major league pitcher, and his brother pitched in college. Next spring, he would make his own mark during his senior season. But on July 15, a month past his 17th birthday, Taylor Hooton killed himself. The authorities ruled the death a suicide by hanging.
His parents and a doctor familiar with the case said they believe that Taylor's death was related to depression that he felt upon discontinuing the use of anabolic steroids. The sense of euphoria and aggression that accompany the use of steroids can be replaced by lethargy, loss of confidence, melancholy and hopelessness when a person stops using performance-enhancing drugs, doctors said.
"It's a pretty strong case that he was withdrawing from steroids and his suicide was directly related to that," said Dr. Larry W. Gibbons, president and medical director of the Cooper Aerobics Center, a leading preventive medicine clinic in Dallas. "This is a kid who was well liked, had a lot good friends, no serious emotional problems. He had a bright future."
Taylor Hooton's example is extreme, but the use of steroids by athletes and nonathletes in high school is considered even more troubling than the use of them by elite athletes who are involved in widely publicized scandals in sports like football, baseball and track and field, a number of doctors said.
While there are relatively few professional athletes, some doctors estimate that 500,000 to one million high school students, or more, use steroids. Adolescents are also more susceptible to some physiological dangers, including premature cessation of bone growth, which can limit a person's height, doctors said.
By nature, teenagers are risk takers, and they are less likely to understand the health risks or to be concerned with potential side effects like infertility, atrophied testicles, high blood pressure, liver damage and prostate cancer, some of which may not appear for 20 or 30 years, doctors said.
BOSTON (UPI) -- Anabolic steroids may have long-term effects on players' behavior and aggression long after they stop abusing the performance enhancing drugs. Northeastern University psychology professor Richard Melloni, with funding from the National Institutes of Health, recently found evidence that long after steroid use ends it can produce long-term aggression, the university said Friday. Melloni has been studying how steroids used during adolescence may permanently alter the brain's ability to produce serotonin. Adolescent Syrian hamsters, given their similar brain circuitry to human adolescents, were administered doses of anabolic steroids and then measured for aggressiveness over certain periods of time.
The researchers initially
hypothesized steroid use during adolescence might permanently alter
the brain's chemistry and a person's tendency toward aggression long
after use has stopped. Their most recent findings, published this week
in Hormones and Behavior, enabled them to confirm this hypothesis and
conclude there is indeed a lengthy price -- namely long-term aggression
-- to pay for drug abuse even after the ingestion of steroids ceases.
"We know testosterone or steroids affect the development of serotonin
nerve cells, which, in turn, decreases serotonin availability in the brain,"
Acceleration performance is important for athletes that need repeat sprint ability. Although acceleration is widely trained for, there is little evidence outlining the key factors. The aim of this study was to determine the kinematic differences between individuals with fast and slow acceleration.
Twenty athletes were tested and filmed for sprint ability over the first three steps of a 15m sprint and classified as fast or slow.
Results: The fast group had significantly lower (11-13%) left and right foot contact times, increased stride frequency and better knee extension. There was no difference found in stride length.
Conclusion: Athletes who are naturally fast in early acceleration achieve this through "reduced ground contact times resulting in an improved stride frequency." Training for improved acceleration should be directed towards using coaching instructions and drills that specifically train such movement adaptations.
Propriception has a sports training application. Nerve endings in muscle and tendons are constantly sending and receiving signals to and from the brain that determine when and how far to activate muscle fiber. If an athlete injures an ankle, not only does the athlete need to rehabilitate the ankles, but also the proprioceptors, so the balance with the joint comes into play.
When learning the acceleration position, which is a hard learn forward from the ankles, it require time and conditioning of the middle-ear, nerve endings in the body, and the central nervous system (proprioceptors) to give the athlete a since of balance.
Short film of Phil Campbell running a 200 meter race in the 2003 State Games here
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